IMMIGRANTS ARRIVE IN ALABAMA SLOWLY
(The following was transcribed as written from: Alabama, Her History, Resources, War Record, and Public Men: From 1540 to 1872 By Willis Brewer published 1872)
White population still came in slowly to the ‘Bikbee settlement, (Tombigbee settlement) for the hazards of penetrating the pathless wilderness which lay between it and the States were augmented by the presence of the inhospitable Indians.
Immigration was also retarded by the difficulty of getting the produce of the country to market, there being export duties to be paid at Fort Stoddart to the United States, and a tariff at Mobile to be paid to Spain. The character of the population was of the rudest kind, and schools and churches were unknown.
In 1801, Spain ceded Louisiana to France, but retained the Floridas, which extended as far west as the Mississippi, and embraced the strip of country between the coast and the line of 31° north latitude. The French, in 1803, sold Louisiana to the United States.
Robert Williams of North Carolina succeeded Gov. Claiborne in 1805 as governor of the Territory.
Important purchase from Chickasaws
The same year (July 23) an important purchase was made from the Chicasas. (Chickasaws) Besides a great body of land in Tennessee, a small district was deeded south of the line of that State.
It was in the shape of a triangle, caused by running the line from the ridge “near the main source of Buffalo ” river in a direct line to the great Tennessee river near the “Chicasa old fields or eastern point of the Chicasa claim on “that river; thence north [east] wardly to the great ridge “dividing the waters running into the Tennessee from those “running into the Cumberland, so as to include the waters “running into Elk river,” etc.
Foothold in the valley of the Tennessee
This was the first foothold secured in the beautiful valley of the Tennessee. Tho agreement was concluded “in the Chicasa country,” and signed by James Robertson of Tennessee and Silas Dinsmore of New Hampshire on the part of the Federal government, and by George and Levi Colbert, Chinabee Mingo, Tishmastubbee, Wm. McGillivray, and four other chiefs, on the part of tho Chicasas; and was witnessed by Reuben Chamberlain, John McKee, John Pitchlynn, and others.
Cherokees also deeded their claim
The Cherokees, Jan. 7, 1806, deeded their claim and title to the same territory, and to all the lands west of it and north of the Tennessee, except two large tracts. This was done in Washington by DoubleHead, and sixteen other chiefs, Gen. Henry Dearborn, secretary of war, acting for the federal government.
Choctaws ceded part of Mississippi
At the treaty of Mount Dexter, Nov. 16, 1805, the Choctas ceded a large district in southern Mississippi, and extending across from the strip on the Mississippi already ceded to that on the Tombikbee, and across that stream to a point near the postoffice ” Chocta Corner,” in the present county of Clarke, Alabama, thence down the comb of the water shed separating the affluents of the two rivers.
This was quite an important treaty to the present State of Mississippi. It was signed by Messrs. James Robertson and Silas Dinsmore, on the part of the federal government, and Puckshenubbee, Homastubbee, Pushmataha, great medal mingoes, and twenty chiefs and warriors on the part Choctas; with John McKee, Wm. Colbert, the Chicasa agent Samuel Mitchell, John Pitchlynn, Louis Leflore, Charles Juzant, and others as witnesses.
Madison county created
Out of the Chicasa cession, Gov. Williams created the county of Madison by proclamation in 1808. Already the smoke from the cabin of the white had begun to ascend from the valley of the Tennessee, and the echo of his axe in those solitudes heralded the onward tramp of civilization Baldwin County was established the west side of the Mobile and Alabama in 1809. The same year David Holmes of Virginia succeeded Gov. Williams. Mobile was yet in the hands of the Spaniards.
In 1810 the three counties lying within the present State of Alabama-Madison, Washington, and Baldwin-contained a white population of 6422, and a negro population of 2624. A fraction over half of these were in Madison.
Military road created
Immigration was assisted by a military road which the Muscogees allowed the federal government to cut from the Chattahoochee River to Mimms’ Ferry on the Alabama River. The three counties sent delegates to the Territorial legislature at Washington, Mississippi.
In October, 1812, the Shawnee chief, Tecumseh came among the Muscogees to incite them to hostilities against the whites. He was the emissary of the British, with whom the federal government was at war. The Spaniards at Pensacola and Mobile had already bred ill-feeling among them against. the, whites, and the fiery eloquence of Tecumseh precipitated the conflict. It began by a series of outrages on immigrants and settlers.
Spain being the ally of Britain, the United States were apprehensive that the ports of that power on the Gulf would be used by the British. Accordingly, Gen. Wilkerson moved from New Orleans with a considerable force, and obliged the Spanish garrison of Fort Charlotte, Mobile, to capitulate, April 13,1813. Thus was the soil of Alabama rescued from European domination.
ALABAMA FOOTPRINTS Exploration: Lost & Forgotten Stories (Volume 1) is a collection of lost and forgotten stories about the people who discovered and initially settled in Alabama.
Some stories include:
- The true story of the first Mardi Gras in America and where it took place
- The Mississippi Bubble Burst – how it affected the settlers
- Did you know that many people devoted to the Crown settled in Alabama –
- Sophia McGillivray- what she did when she was nine months pregnant
- Alabama had its first Interstate in the early days of settlement